There are three main island groups in the Philippines; Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The largest islands by island group are Luzon, Palawan, Mindoro, Masbate, and Catanduanes for the Luzon group, Samar, Negros, Panay, Leyte, Cebu, and Bohol for the Visayas group, and Mindanao, Basilan, Jolo, Tawitawi, and Dinagat for the Mindanao group.
These also serve to organize the regions by geographic location. The regions of I, II, III, IV‑A, MIMAROPA, V, NCR, and CAR are covered by Luzon, VI, VII, and VIII by the Visayas, and IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and ARMM by Mindanao.
Island groups and component regions
|Island group||Component regions|
Of these three, the most populated (as of 2015) is the Luzon island group having 57,470,097 inhabitants (representing 56.91% of the entire population of the Philippines), followed by Mindanao with 24,135,775 (23.90%), and the Visayas with 19,373,431 (19.19%).
|Island group||Population (2015)||Population (2010)||Annual Population Growth Rate (2010-2015)||Most populated city/town (2015)||Least populated city/town (2015)|
|Luzon||57,470,097||52,362,999||1.79%||Quezon City (2,936,116)||Kalayaan, Palawan (184)|
|Visayas||19,373,431||18,003,940||1.41%||Cebu City (922,611)||Maslog, Eastern Samar (5,407)|
|Mindanao||24,135,775||21,968,174||1.81%||Davao City (1,632,991)||Burgos, Surigao del Norte (4,034)|
Extreme points (town center)
Based on extreme points, Itbayat (the northernmost town of the Luzon group), Caraga (the easternmost of the Mindanao group), Kalayaan (the westernmost of the Luzon group), and Sitangkai (the southernmost of the Mindanao group), also serve as the extreme points in the entire Philippines. The following table shows the extreme points (based on city/town center) by island group.
|Island group||North ↑||East →||South ↓||West ←|
|Luzon||Itbayat (Batanes) 20° 47' N, 121° 50' E||Gigmoto (Catanduanes) 13° 47' N, 124° 24' E||Balabac (Palawan) 7° 59' N, 117° 4' E||Kalayaan (Palawan) 11° 3' N, 114° 17' E|
|Visayas||Biri (Northern Samar) 12° 41' N, 124° 22' E||Guiuan (Eastern Samar) 11° 2' N, 125° 43' E||Siaton (Negros Oriental) 9° 4' N, 123° 2' E||Caluya (Antique) 11° 56' N, 121° 33' E|
|Mindanao||Loreto (Dinagat Islands) 10° 22' N, 125° 35' E||Caraga (Davao Oriental) 7° 20' N, 126° 34' E||Sitangkai (Tawi-Tawi) 4° 40' N, 119° 24' E||Turtle Islands (Tawi-Tawi) 6° 4' N, 118° 19' E|